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Most people who call themselves conservative actually are more liberal than not

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When I first voted in a presidential election 50 years ago this coming November, conservatism was not exactly on an upward swing. The C-word was not  poison back then, but not many people were proud to call themselves right-wingers. A label like that only conjured visions of the John Birch Society and similarly  kooky groups.

In that year’s presidential balloting, incumbent Democrat Lyndon Johnson, a devoted liberal at least with respect to domestic policies, buried conservative Republican challenger Barry Goldwater in a landslide.

A few decades later, however, the so-called Reagan revolution succeeded in demonizing the term “liberal” (although the Reagan presidency wasn’t nearly as conservative as today’s Republican seem to think, as we see HERE). The L-word eventually became so unfashionable that liberals began calling themselves “progressives” to avoid the stigma.

But, of course, labels don’t mean as much as ideology and never have. Some right-wingers concede this point when they call insufficiently  conservative partymates RINOS (Republicans In Name Only).

This mislabeling phenomenon is even more widespread than you might think.

Consider, for example, the points made by John Sides in THIS ESSAY:

A couple months ago, a Gallup poll recorded a small uptick in the percentage of Americans who identify as “liberal” — to 23 percent, or what Gallup, eliding the margin of error in the poll, called a “new high.”  My Post colleague Chris Cillizza wondered if liberal was “no longer a dirty word.”

We will see.  After all, there were far more conservatives in that Gallup poll, which, for some, means we’re still a “center-right nation.” But whether people call themselves “conservative” isn’t necessarily that telling in the first place.  A recent book by two political scientists shows that liberal may be a dirty word, but liberalism is alive and well — even among people who call themselves “conservative.” In

In “Ideology in America,” Christopher Ellis and James Stimson describe a striking disjuncture. When identifying themselves in a word, Americans choose “conservative” far more than “liberal.” In fact they have done so for 70 years, and increasingly so since the early 1960s.

But when it comes to saying what the government should actually do, the public appears more liberal than conservative. Ellis and Stimson gathered 7,000 survey questions dating back to 1956 that asked some variant of whether the government should do more, less, or the same in lots of different policy areas.  On average, liberal responses were more common than conservative responses. This has been true in nearly every year since 1956, even as the relative liberalism of the public has trended up and down.  For decades now there has been a consistent discrepancy between what Ellis and Stimson call symbolic ideology (how we label ourselves) and operational ideology (what we really think about the size of government).

Looked at this way, almost 30 percent of Americans are “consistent liberals” — people who call themselves liberals and have liberal politics.  Only 15 percent are “consistent conservatives” — people who call themselves conservative and have conservative politics.  Nearly 30 percent are people who identify as conservative but actually express liberal views.  The United States appears to be a center-right nation in name only.

This raises the question: why are so many people identifying as conservative while simultaneously preferring more government?  For some conservatives, it is because they associate the label with religion, culture or lifestyle.  In essence, when they identify as “conservative,” they are thinking about conservatism in terms of family structure, raising children, or interpreting the Bible. Conservatism is about their personal lives, not their politics.

But other self-identified conservatives, though, are conservative in terms of neither religion and culture nor the size of government.  These are the truly “conflicted conservatives,” say Ellis and Stimson, who locate their origins in a different factor: how conservatives and liberals have traditionally talked about politics.  Conservatives, they argue, talk about politics in terms of symbols and the general value of “conservatism” — and news coverage, they find, usually frames the label “conservative” in positive terms.  Liberals talk about policy in terms of the goals it will serve — a cleaner environment, a stronger safety net, and so on — which are also good things for many people.  As a result, some people internalize both messages and end up calling themselves conservative but having liberal views on policy.

Ideology has two faces: the labels people choose and the actual content of their beliefs.  For liberals, these are mostly aligned.  For conservatives, they are not.  American conservatism means different things to different people.  For many, what it doesn’t mean is less government.

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1 Comment

  1. How sad to see that, even in the 21st century so many people have not advanced beyond identifying themselves and others as either one or the other; a thinking, informed adult will typically some hold views that are ‘conservative’ and others ‘liberal’. In like manner, the question of ‘more gov’t vs less gov’t’ is also a false dichotomy; we need to do away with the stupid parts, such as the damned drug war, and provide more of the safety nets that people need to live healthy lives.

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